Measuring Body Fluid Compartments To measure the volume of any fluid compartment within the body you must inject or infuse a marker substance that will equilibrate diffuse freely to a uniform concentration throughout this compartment.
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To be a perfect marker a substance must also not be metabolised. Furthermore, it must be possible to measure the concentration of the marker once equilibration is complete.
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Tritiated 3H water is a good marker for the whole body fluid compartment because it diffuses throughout the body, it is chemically identical to normal water and it is easy to measure the equilibrium concentration because 3H https://oops-essay.icu/blog17/5867-population-growth-threats-and.php is radioactive.
To be an absolutely perfect marker, the substance should also not be excreted.
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As this is not possible the kidney will excrete everything dissolved in the bloodstream the calculation must correct for excretion. Therefore, to measure the volume of the blood plasma fluid compartment, you need a marker which equilibrates throughout the blood supply and nowhere else.
One such marker is Evan's Blue, a dye which binds to plasma proteins. To measure the extracellular fluid volume, use a cell inpermeant marker substance such as inulin or mannitol that will equilibrate everywhere except in the cells it is possible to make inulin and mannitol radioactive.
To calculate the interstitial fluid not in the cells and not in the blood fluid volume, subtract the plasma volume from the extracellular volume.
To calculate the intracellular fluid volume subtract the extracellular fluid volume from the total fluid volume.
Body fluids and electrolytes